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The Relationship Between Schatzberg’s Principles of Culture and Technological Systems

Technology is often described as the totality of any existing methods, devices, techniques, or procedures used in the creation of new products or services or in the successful accomplishment of goals, like scientific research. It is the combined result of human knowledge and technology. There are many sectors and sub-sectors in which technology is growing at an extraordinary rate. It ranges from electronic to military and industrial technology. Today, technology plays a key role in almost every field. Thus, education on technology can greatly help individuals, companies, and organizations in their performance and expansion.

Technology in education cannot be viewed as a discrete and static field. Instead it should be considered as a part of curriculum that integrates science with technology in a balanced way. It is important to realize that the study of technology is not a science in itself but rather a subset of science. The study of technology in education therefore, should be seen as a subset of social science. The relationship between technology and science is complex and evolving over time, with profound consequences for society as a whole.

Cultural Studies on technology has traced the development of technology through history. This literature has developed as a dynamic field concerned with technological change, development, management, and cultural change. One of the emerging areas of inquiry is the history of the digital revolution. Using a cross-disciplinary approach, this literature has highlighted the role of technology in regulating cultural change. Using a schatzberg style assessment framework, this research has shown how technological systems have been shaped by social and cultural factors.

Schatzberg distinguished four types of technologies based on the content they produce and the way in which they facilitate the process of scientific reasoning. The first type of technology was descriptive technology, which refers to physical technologies and their effect on the sciences. These include such technologies as plant biology, lithology, surveying, mechanics, thermodynamics, and others. Another type of technological system was quantitative, which includes concepts like mass, length, time, power, and energy.

The second analytical category was rational technology. This analyzes technological systems by judging their utility and their impact on human understanding. This type of analysis examines the extent to which technological systems have affected the arts, science, technology, and government. The third analytical category was ethical or communal technology. In this category, technological systems were evaluated according to the extent to which they support justice, creativity, freedom, and knowledge creation.

Applied Science and Engineering are the fourth term used by Schatzberg to classify different types of technological systems. He argued that Applied Science is a descriptive term that refers to a field of sciences whose major concern is describing and analyzing technological systems. Applied Science may, as opposed to descriptive science, focus on human activities and their effects on the environment. It may also use quantitative methods to describe discoveries made by scientists.

Viennese concepts of Technological Systems were influenced by European thinking about economy, politics, art, technology, and human beings. Schatzberg also claimed that the 20th century will be the age of technological change. He saw changes in the forms of communication, production, transportation, and consumption. These changes caused profound changes in the ways people thought about themselves, the world, and technology.

Applied science and engineering emerged out of the interplay between two main theories of the modern era. One was the classical approach to technology as the discovery of practical knowledge through the processes of natural selection and cultural evolution. According to this view, technology emerged through the efforts of disciplined human societies to improve living standards through technological innovations. The other theory, according to which technology emerged as the result of social and cultural developments, postulates that knowledge and its development are not random but depend greatly on the attitudes of humans toward specific technological objects, practices, and thoughts. Both of these theories have great influence on the structure of the techne of culture.